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Open in a separate window. Discussion Mortality rates of IC episodes in the critical care setting remain excessively elevated due to diagnosis difficulties and, subsequently, inappropriate treatment. Conclusions This study identified previous surgery as the principal clinical factor associated with CAGTA-positive results serologically proven candidiasis and emphasises the utility of this promising technique, which was not influenced by high Candida colonization or antifungal treatment.

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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Acknowledgements The present work is dedicated to Dr. Invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients: different therapeutic options and a uniform strategy. Rev Iberoam Micol. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to fungal infections in critical care settings: different options but the same strategy. J Invasive Fungal Infect. Comparison of caspofungin and amphotericin B for invasive candidiasis.

N Engl J Med. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

congenital cutaneous candidiasis: Topics by

A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of lipid-associated amphotericin B alone versus in combination with an antibody-based inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 in patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. Micafungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for candidaemia and invasive candidosis: a phase III randomised double-blind trial.

Delaying the empiric treatment of Candida bloodstream infection until positive blood culture results are obtained: a potential risk factor for hospital mortality. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study. Impact of adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on the outcome of patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis. Crit Care Med. Adequacy of empirical antifungal therapy and effect on outcome among patients with invasive Candida species infections. J Antimicrob Chemother.

A bedside scoring system "Candida score" for early antifungal treatment in nonneutropenic critically ill patients with Candida colonization. Contribution of serological tests and blood culture to the early diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Is there a role for antibody testing in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis? Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. Detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ-tubes in the serodiagnosis of systemic candidosis. Detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in patients with hematologic malignancies.

J Clin Microbiol. Clinical significance of Candida albicans germ tube antibody detection in critically ill patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. Clin Vaccine Immunol. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients. Ann Surg. Management of Candida species infections in critically ill patients. Lancet Infect Dis. Assessment of preemptive treatment to prevent severe candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients.

Revista Iberoamericana de Micología

Detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes during experimental infections by different Candida species. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Prophylaxis, empirical, preemptive or targeted therapy, which is the best in the different hosts? Ther Clin Risk Management.

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Identification of two germ tube specific cell wall antigens of Candida albicans. Infect Immun. Simplified adsorption method for detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes. Diagnosis of systemic candidiasis in parenteral drug addicts by detection of antimycelial antibodies. Med Clin Barc ; 90 — Antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes in two intensive care patients with invasive candidiasis. Value of detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tube in the diagnosis of systemic candidosis. Specific antibody response in a patient with Candida dubliniensis fungemia. Lysis-centrifugation blood cultures in the detection of tissue-proven invasive candidiasis.

Disseminated versus single-organ infection. What is this page? Burkhard R. Inglis, M. Munro, Steve Bates, Neil A. Gow, Lois L.

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  6. Mitchell, Alexander D. Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes.

    We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6, genes and to identify genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy.

    We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Candida species have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Candida albicans is the most prevalent species isolated from yeast bloodstream infections and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality Wey et al. The risk factors for developing candidaemia include prematurity, azotaemia, central venous catheter use, chemotherapy, mucous membrane barrier breakage, broad spectrum antibiotics, neutropaenia, total parenteral nutrition, steroids and surgery.

    Candida spp colonisation is an independent risk factor for candidaemia, but it is well established that a minority of colonised patients will acquire invasive diseases. Previous authors have suggested that the risk of candidaemia increases with the number of body sites colonised by Candida. The intensity of Candida colonisation in critically ill patients may predict subsequent infections with identical strains Pittet et al. Recently, Leon et al. The calculation of a Candida score was based on the variables generated from a logistic regression model that evaluated the risk factors independently associated with candidaemia.

    The authors rounded the score for patients with exposure to total parenteral nutrition, surgery or multifocal Candida species colonisation up to 1 and the weight for clinically severe sepsis up to 2 and established a cut-off value of 2. Therefore, critically ill patients with candidaemia who had a score of 2. It is clear that the number of body sites colonised by the Candida species impacts the risk of acquiring candidaemia; however, whether the persistence or replacement of a single clone of C.